In Emacs, company-mode (short for "complete anything") is a framework for performing completion in buffers. It's an alternative to the popular auto-complete-mode. company-mode supports extension via backends which provide the framework with lists of possible completions in various contexts. So, for example, there's a backend that provides completion support for Emacs lisp and one that does the same for Python. Backends can use very different technologies as long as they conform to the backend interface specified by the mode.